Sabtu, 27 Juni 2009

About Migration

Migration is considered one of the defining global issues of the early twenty-first century, as more and more people are on the move today than at any other point in human history. There are now about 192 million people living outside their place of birth, which is about three per cent of the world's population.

This means that roughly one of every thirty-five persons in the world is a migrant. Between 1965 and 1990, the number of international migrants increased by 45 million-an annual growth rate of about 2.1 per cent. The current annual growth rate is about 2.9 per cent.

Discourse on migration involves many perspectives. There is growing recognition that migration is an essential and inevitable component of the economic and social life of every State, and that orderly and properly managed migration can be beneficial for both individuals and societies. The multiple and complex dimensions of migration include:

* labour migration
* family reunification
* migration and security
* combating irregular migration
* migration and trade
* migrant rights
* health and migration
* integration
* migration and development.

Policy makers and practitioners need to develop a comprehensive understanding of the multi-dimensional phenomenon of migration in order to manage it effectively. A comprehensive and cooperative approach to international migration management is required to deal with the migration pressures of this century. Such an approach will include policies and programmes for migration and development, facilitating migration, regulating migration, and forced migration. To be successful, international migration management cannot be undertaken by governments unilaterally.

There are many global trends behind today's mobile world that will impact migration and migration management, including:

* demographic trends
* economic disparities between developing and developed countries
* trade liberalization necessitating a more mobile labour force
* communication networks linking all parts of the world
* transnational migration.

In the twenty-first century, the movement of people will become even more significant as a result of these trends:

Economic liberalization

The trade and investment climate has sustained the flow of migrants. Higher demand for labour in the developed economies and availability of labour in underdeveloped economies has set global labour migration in motion. The huge global labour market has offered employers the chance to hire migrant workers as part of their cost minimization strategies.

Moreover, globalization with its associated forces has increased the mobility of labour across borders. It has already reinforced the movement of skilled workers. Multinational corporations favour the movement of labour, especially highly skilled labour. Faced with acute labour shortages, the industries of developed countries are evaluating migration policies and are showing preference for a relatively flexible mechanism. American and European service industries in particular have been pushing for a "liberal policy" for movement of labour as "service providers," especially in the hotel and restaurant, software, insurance, and financial industries.

Economic decline

The global economy has been experiencing a decline since the beginning of 2001. The International Monetary Fund has projected global growth of 3.2 per cent lower than in previous years. This has produced downward pressure on the movement of labour, especially in the information technology (IT), construction, and manufacturing sectors. However, the actual impact of economic decline, in terms of the return of migrant labour to countries of origin, has yet to be seen. Experience with the Asian financial crisis of 1999 suggests that most migrants tend to remain in the country of destination even when conditions worsen. Temporary recession may not always cause a major disruption of migratory flows and will not alter the trends in a major way.

Demographic changes

Global population growth differs between developed and developing countries. In the developed countries, the current annual rate of growth is less than 0.3 per cent, while in the rest of the world the population is increasing almost six times as fast. Demographic changes affect international migration in two ways. Rapid population growth combined with economic difficulties push people to move out of their habitat, and a declining and ageing population pressures countries to accept migrants.

Sustained low fertility in developed countries produces a rapidly ageing population. The "smaller and older" population projected for developed countries over the next 50 years may enhance possibilities for greater mobility of people. According to UN population projections, Japan and all countries of Europe are expected to face declining population growth over the next 50 years.

For example, the population of Italy is projected to decline from current 57 million to 41 million by 2050. Similarly, the population of Japan is projected to decline to 105 million by 2080 from the current 127 million. In addition to the decline in population size, Japan and the countries of Europe are undergoing a relatively rapid ageing process. While not a solution on its own, one part of the toolkit to address this problem is a gradual process of "Replacement Migration."

Emergence of "migrant networks"

Networks of migrants from a specific region or regions have emerged as a dominant force in enhancing mobility of people. They influence political decisions in host countries to provide economic assistance to their country of origin. They also influence economic and trade relations between the host and the home countries and require more creative and productive integration processes.

Emergence of transnational migration

Advancements in transportation and communication technologies that link places and people globally are leading to the emergence of a "transnational migration space". This spreads over more than one geographical space in which migrants can shuttle between more than one home. Apart from physical movements, the flow of information, skills, and remittances are the other components of the "transnational migration space". Gaps between "geographic space" and "migration space" have shrunk with far-reaching consequences on international migration.

The most immediate outcome of this phenomenon is the growing acceptance of dual citizenship, multiple property, and voting rights. States now recognize that membership is no longer territory-based. A new kind of "people-State" relationship, which is fast taking root in international politics, is likely to influence the future course of human mobility.

Few countries manage migration effectively

There are a variety of reasons for this, not the least of which is because few countries have a defined and articulated migration policy. It is difficult to manage anything if there is not a policy structure established to guide the managers. Yet even countries that do have a coherent migration policy backed up by legislation often experience serious difficulties in managing migration.

Some critics of public policy, particularly in the developed countries, have characterized the period from the mid-1970s to the present time as a quarter century of migration mismanagement. Moreover, the large-scale movement of peoples has not ceased. Irregular migration has become one of the major issues of our time. Migrant smuggling now matches drug trafficking as a major source of income for organized crime. Trafficking in human beings has become a significant worldwide concern. Migration has moved up the scale of important issues facing the countries of the developed world so that now it is at the top of the policy agenda of the G8 countries.

It is not difficult to understand why people from the poorer regions of the globe wish to migrate to more prosperous countries. People have always moved within regions or from one region to another in order to improve their standard of living, to give their children better opportunities to get ahead, or to escape from poverty, war, and famine. This is the iron rule of migration that has governed since the beginning of time.

Today, with modern transportation and telecommunications, more people are motivated and able to move. The poor and disadvantaged can now see with their own eyes the wide disparity between their standard of living and that of the richer and more advantaged people in the world. They want to share in the wealth, and by the means of modern transportation, they are able to get to richer lands in a matter of hours. With economic globalization and the proliferation of international business, there is also increasing demand for mobility of professionals. The challenge for all countries is how to regulate and manage these large-scale migratory movements.

Selasa, 23 Juni 2009

Indonesia Tampilkan Kebinekaan Pada Pesta Rakyat di Roma

(Press release KBRI Roma)
KBRI Roma pada tanggal 17 Mei 2009 berpartisipasi pada Festa dei Popolo ke-18. Kegiatan tersebut diselenggarakan bersama oleh Missionari Scalabriniani, Propinsi Lazio dan Pemda Roma. Festa dei Popolo adalah Pesta Rakyat tahunan khusus diperuntukkan bagi kalangan imigran yang bermukim di Italia. Selama tiga tahun terakhir, kegiatan tersebut diselenggarakan di depan Basilika San Giovanni, sebuah basilika (gereja) tertua yang berarsitektur Romawi di Italia yang dibangun pada tahun 5 Masehi.

Tujuan Pesta Rakyat tersebut adalah untuk memperlancar proses integrasi kaum imigran dengan masyarakat Italia. Presiden Propinsi Lazio, Luca Zingaretti dalam sambutannya saat membuka kegiatan tersebut, mengatakan bahwa Pemerintah Lazio ingin melembagakan sebuah kerjasama dengan masyarakat imigran. Karena itu, semua imigran yang berdomisili secara resmi di Italia tidak perlu merasa khawatir. Sementara itu, Federi Rocca, yang mewakili Walikota Roma, mengatakan bahwa Pemerintah Roma ingin menjadikan kota Roma sebagai kota yang multi-etnis. Pemda Roma terus mempromosikan pendekatan integrasi kepada kaum imigran meski harus menempuh jalan sulit. Pemda Roma juga mengharapkan dapat berkerjasama dengan negara-negara asal imigran untuk bahu-membahu mendorong proses intergrasi tersebut .

Festa dei Popolo tahun ini, diikuti oleh 40 kelompok imigran dari 29 negara. Para peserta, selain membuka anjungan promosi dan anjungan makanan, juga ikut mengisi pentas budaya. Tidak seperti para peserta dari kelompok-kelompok imigran lain di Italia yang umumnya beragama Katolitk, peserta dari Indonesia pada Pesta Rakyat ini diwakili Kelompok Oikumene, yaitu sebuah kelompok kebaktian masyarakat Indonesia di Roma yang anggotanya terdiri dari penganut Katolik dan Protestan serta ditambahkan beberapa penganut Islam untuk mengisi kegiatan tersebut.

Anjungan promosi Indonesia, menampilkan berbagai bahan promosi budaya, pariwisata dan produk-produk kerajinan (UKM) dan dipandu oleh masyarakat Indonesia di Roma yang menggunakan busana nasional. KBRI Roma juga memanfaatkan kesempatan tersebut untuk menyebarluaskan informasi mengenai rencana penyelenggaraan Bazar Indonesia 2009 pada tanggal 9 Juni yang akan datang, serta mempromosikan Pameran Produk Expo Indonesia yang akan berlangsung pada bulan November 2009 di Jakarta. Sesuai catatan, Anjungan Indonesia dikunjungi oleh lebih dari 1.000 pengunjung, termasuk Pimpinan Missionari Scalabriniani dan Wakil Walikota Roma. Pengunjung Pesta Rakyat tahun ini, secara keseluruhan diperkirakan mencapai 5.000 orang.

Anjungan Makanan Indonesia menyajikan nasi goreng yang diramu dan dikemas secara menarik oleh Ibu Paula Ferni Unu. Pada tahun 2008 lalu, Ibu Paula mendapat penghargaan khusus sebagai juara satu umum pada Lomba Masak Internasional di Napoli, Italia.

Para pengunjung, yang sebagian adalah para wisatawan asing yang sedang menikmati musim panas di Roma, tampaknya menyukai masakan Indonesia sehingga Anjungan Makanan Indonesia hanya sempat dibuka untuk beberapa jam karena persediaan makanan habis.

Sementara itu, pada pentas budaya sore hari, Indonesia menampilkan tarian poco-poco. Pentas budaya Indonesia tersebut menarik perhatian para pengunjung karena keragaman pakaian dan iringan musik yang energetik. Lebih dari itu, dalam pengantarnya, pembawa acara menyampaikan bahwa pertujukkan tari poco-poco dari Indonesia mewakili budaya, etnis dan agama yang berbeda-beda di Indonesia tetapi tetap bersatu. Disampaikan juga bahwa kelompok imigran semestinya juga bersatu dalam kedamaian. Seusai tarian, pembawa acara juga meminta seorang peserta poco-poco yang berpakaian kerudung untuk tampil ke panggung menerima penghargaan dan sekali lagi diumumkan bahwa peserta dari Indonesia, termasuk seorang wanita muslimah yang perlu mendapat apresiasi dari semua pengunjung.

Di Italia saat ini terdapat 4 juta imigran, dengan lebih dari 150 kelompok. Seperti tahun-tahun sebelumnya, kelompok imigran yang aktif terlibat dalam Festa dei Popolo, antara lain, adalah Albania, Angola, Brazil, Ekuador, Kolumbia, Madagaskar, Mauritius, Peru, Philipina, Romania, Ukraina dan Venezuela. (Sumber: KBRI Roma)

Minggu, 21 Juni 2009


Ansensius Guntur
(Artikel ini sudah di muat di majalah Scalabriniani)

Me and Pierre Onel

With the Seafarers in the ship

Il tempo liturgico dell'Avvento che ci prepara alla Nascita del Redentore è sempre un tempo privilegiato per i credenti, ma è altrettanto e direi con maggior enfasi un tempo che si rinnova nel profondo dell'animo del marinaio ogniqualvolta si avvicina all'arrivo a qualche porto. Perché a terra, nell'animo del marinaio, si risvegliano cumuli di sentimenti, di ricordi, lontani nel tempo e nello spazio: famiglia, parenti, amici, infanzia. È una primavera di sentimenti e di ricordi come la primavera campestre dopo il duro inverno.
Una primavera che ho cercato di interpretare e di vivere con Pierre Onel Féliatus, mio confratello e compagno di studio, nel porto di Civitavecchia come una delle nostre prime esperienze pastorali alla vigilia ormai prossima di consacrare interamente la nostra vita al servizio dei fratelli migranti e dei marinai. Allo scopo ci siamo uniti ai volontari della Stella Maris locale, dove abbiamo incontrato vari membri dell'equipaggio delle diverse navi.
Al porto romano arrivano quotidianamente navi mercantili e da crociera, vere città galleggianti. Ad accogliere soprattutto i marinai e gli addetti all’equipaggio sono sempre pronti e solleciti i volontari della Stella Maris, diretta da P. Arthur Jeziorek e Massimiliano de Grado, per offrire loro piccoli ma importanti servizi. Oltre all'accoglienza è rivolto loro l'invito di trascorrere qualche sereno e piacevole momento presso il centro, una "casa lontana da casa", come sono soliti chiamarlo, e dove nella conversazione amena e nei piccoli servizi offerti (carte telefoniche, internet, ecc.) sboccia senza preamboli una vera atmosfera familiare, di cui sentono una pressante necessità, cosa che non possono sentire ed avere durante i lunghi giorni di viaggio in mare. L'incontro con i volontari e con il cappellano rappresenta per loro un incontro con il Signore che li fa sentire meno lontani dalla famiglia.
            Non tutti i marinai o altri addetti ai vari servizi hanno la possibilità di scendere a terra per la brevità della permanenza in porto delle navi. Sono allora i volontari a salire a bordo, offrire loro i piccoli servizi utili  (carte telefoniche, cellulari, chiavetta per internet, bibbie, rosari, etc), ma soprattutto una parola di gioia e di speranza, spesso, a causa della lingua, trasmessa con il linguaggio dell'amore e della fraternità, con un sorriso, con un abbraccio e tanti gesti di cortesia. La gioia di questo incontro si trasmette da cuore a cuore, anche ai volontari perché è sempre certo che chi dà infine riceve moltiplicato. Ma anche noi torniamo con una carica altrettanto moltiplicata per il nostro ideale missionario.
            Una delle ultime visite realizzate al porto di Civitavecchia è stata la nave Costa Concordia, allora in partenza per una delle crociere precedenti al tragico naufragio avvenuto la sera del 13 gennaio 2012. L’urto contro gli scogli, a 500 metri dal porto dell'Isola del Giglio, ha provocato uno squarcio di 70 metri nello scafo e causato diversi morti, feriti e dispersi e costretto all'evacuazione delle 4.229 persone, di cui oltre 3 mila i passeggeri e oltre mille i componenti dell’equipaggio, che si trovavano a bordo. La nave ora, inclinata di circa 80 gradi su una secca di Punta Gabbianara, è freddo testimone del tragico evento. Ricordo che durante la nostra visita ci siamo intrattenuti in amena conversazione con varie persone dell’equipaggio, le stesse che nella crociera seguente hanno dovuto portare soccorso agli oltre 3 mila passeggeri. I giorni seguenti al tragico evento, ci siamo recati, a Roma e a Civitavecchia, a visitare vari di loro, di nazionalità diverse. Abbiamo portato loro indumenti e soprattutto una parola di speranza. Abbiamo ascoltato i loro racconti e in ognuno abbiamo percepito la loro sofferenza, la preoccupazione per l’avvenire e l’orgoglio, non certo per il tragico epilogo della loro nave, ma perché erano stati artefici in prima persona e non badando tanto a se stessi, dell’incolumità di tantissimi passeggeri.
A Roma e a Civitavecchia, i volontari della Stella Maris, il responsabile dell’Apostolato del Mare Mondiale del Pontificio Consiglio per i Migranti e gli Itineranti, P. Bruno Ciceri, con alcuni seminaristi Scalabriniani, si sono adoperati nell’accoglienza di membri dell’equipaggio di varie origini, bisognosi di sostegno psicologico e necessità materiali (vestiti, medicine, scarpe ecc.) avendo perso tutto ciò che avevano.
Le nostre prime esperienze con gli uomini del mare intendono essere i primi passi della nostra ormai prossima consacrazione missionaria, che ci porterà, seguendo le orme del Beato Fondatore, per le vie di quel complesso mondo dei migranti e degli uomini di mare.

With the Crews of Costa Concordia

With the Chaplain on board

Arsip Blog

Estimated number of international migrants worldwide

Percentage of the world's population who are migrants

Migrants would constitute the fifth most populous country in the world

Percentage of migrants worldwide who are women

Estimated remittances sent by migrants in 2009

Estimated remittances sent by migrants to developing countries in 2009

Internally displaced persons in the world in 2009

Estimated number of refugees in the world today



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